Welcome to the Abstract Categorial Grammar Homepage
This page presents the current state of the art of Abstract
Grammars (ACGs). We intend to keep it up-to-date and present items of
nature. As of now here is a list of publications on ACGs.
to Abstract Categorial Grammars: Foundations and main properties.
Slides: day 1,
in Abstract Categorial Grammars: Language theory and linguistic
notes (part 1
2) are available (note that they are currently moving and
might differ from the ESSLLI
2 and 4, day3, day 5
2 and 4, day
files for day 2, day 4, and lecture notes.
Formal Properties of the ACGs and Modeling:
On the Core Mechanisms of ACGs:
- Carl Pollard: Convergent
- Carl Pollard: Higher-Order
- (2008) Makoto
Prefix-Correct Earley Recognizer for Multiple Context-Free Grammars,
TAG+9 2008, the Ninth
International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms,
Tübingen, Germany, June 7-8, 2008. (Slides)
- (2003) Reinhard
Lambdas, and Logic. In
Geert-Jan Kruijff and Richard Oehrle, editors, Resource Sensitivity in Binding and
Anaphora, Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy, pages 23-54.
- (2001) Reinhard
Grammars and the Syntax-Semantics Interface. In R. van Rooy and M. Stokhof,
editors, proceedings of the
Thirteenth Amsterdam Colloquium, pages 150-155, Amsterdam.
- (2001) Reinhard
Grammar and Lexical-Functional Grammar. In Miriam Butt and Tracy Holloway
King, editors, proceedings of the
LFG01 Conference, University of Hong Kong, pages
259-279,Stanford CA, 2001. CSLI Publications..
- (1994) Aarne
Ranta. Type Theoretical Grammar. Oxford
University Press, Oxford, 1994. And
work on Grammatical
(former Calligramme team)
is developing a toolkit for testing and parsing with ACG signatures
and lexicons. It is available (with
(README) (example of
a signature and lexicon declaration
It comes with two (compiled code) executables (bycode
executables are also available. They have the same name without the
acgc.opt : a typechecker for ACG signature and
acg.opt: an interpreter to manipulate ACG
signatures, lexicons, and terms (for instance to load signatures and
lexicons, and to check the type of a term wrt to a given abstract
signature, and to compute its corresponding object term). It now can
parse object terms of 2nd order linear ACGs.
How to install it: You can install it the hard way using the
tarball of the sources (all the instructions are in
file. But it is also available as
an OPAM package.
acg example files are available either in the
- Install OPAM. Look
- Initialize OPAM. Look
instructions. It will in particular add the binaries installed by
opam and make them available. Be sure not to forget to run:
opam init or
eval $(opam config env) in order to have the opam installed packages available as binaries in your PATH.
- Install the acgtk package by running:
This will make the two binaries
acg.opt available. These are the native
binaries. Two bytecode executables are also available:
example directory of the sources, or in the
<root> is the root directory of opam (typically
<prefix> the current ocaml version (e.g., 4.02.3, or
system if you are using a system-installed ocaml, i.e., not installed via opam).
How to use it: Here are three usage examples. There is also
an emacs mode to write acg files. Look at
file and at
the README file for
a basic description of how to install and use it.
- This first example use
the anbncndn.acg file
that exemplifies some langage beyond CFG using TAG. Note the use
the of '
<< ' composition operator in the acg file
to compose the mapping from derivation trees to derived trees
Abs), and from derived trees to strings
lexicon Full =
Yield << Abs.
The second example exemplifies the ambiguities of a CFG
grammar. It comes
Kanazawa's lecture notes (from an example given
and Language Processing, by Daniel Jurafsky and James
Fig. 10.2), third
part. Page number is indicated in the acg
- Compile the grammar running:
This produces a anbncdnd.acgo file.
- Run the
interpreted (possibly in some utility such as
to benefit from readline editing facilites). Then, inside the
interpreted, you can first load the data with
Full parse a+a+a+b+b+b+c+c+c+d+d+d:S;
that will output some abstract term representing the
The third example shows a CFG which produces both ambiguous and
infinite parse trees. The acg file
- You can compile the file running:
- Then run the interpreter acg.opt and type the commands:
load o MK-lecture-example.acgo;
to load the signatures and lexicons, in particular the
and observe you get
to get the datalog program associated with the lexicon
surface query book+the+flight+from+Houston:S;
to get the extensional database and the query associated
to the term.
Other examples are available such as:
- Compile the file:
- In the interpreter, run:
load o Jean-regarde-telescope.acgo;
CFG parse Jean+regarde+un+homme+avec+un+telescope:S;
workshops: the Lambda Calculus and Formal Grammar workshop
How to contact us:
this page. Or you can contact any of the authors in the list above.